LXXV BRITISH AND FRENCH MISSIONS 399 The British envoy, on his part, agreed to furnish munitions of war to the Shah in case he was attacked by the Afghans or the French. There were stringent pro- visions for the expulsion and " extirpation " of any French subjects who wished to settle in Persia. On the com- mercial side it was stipulated that English and Indian merchants should be permitted to settle free of taxes at the ports, and that English broad-cloth, iron, steel, and lead should be admitted free of duty. Thus Malcolm's first mission ended in complete success. Rawlinson, it is true, regards it as a failure inasmuch as it revealed to Persia our anxiety about "the. road" to India. Although I realize the force of his objections, I am inclined to think that the Persians, who are remarkable for their political acumen, have not, since the reign of Nadir Shah at all events, required any tuition on the subject, and that to have delayed on that account the opening up of relations with Persia, or to have ,ignc3fed this important question, would have been a mistake. At. the same time, the clauses directed against the French''are certainly character- ized by extreme bitterness which invites hostile criticism. The Persian Embassfto India^ 1802.—Fath Ali Shah sent a return embassy to -Bombay, headed by a certain Haji Khalil Khan. Most unfortunately, the envoy was killed in a quarrel which arose between his servants and the guard that attended him. The English authorities, who were much upset at the untoward occurrence, made the most handsome amends,1 and the Shah is said to have observed that more ambassadors might be killed on the same terms. Three years later Aga Nabi Khan, brother-in-law of the late envoy, reached India as the representative of Persia ; but the cc sultanized " Governor-General had left India, profound indifference concerning Persia prevailed at Calcutta, more especially after the disastrous ending to the French campaigns in Syria and Egypt, and Aga Nabi Khan returned home in January 1807 a disappointed man. This policy of inertness, which took no notice of the 1 Ismail Khan, son of the envoy, was granted a pension of two thousand rupees a month for life. He lived to enjoy this annuity for sixty-five years, and died in Paris, where he attended every performance of the opera during a period of fifty years.